Advanced Biochemistry and Biosensors laboratories
Health care is the main area of biosensors applications in recent years. Measurements of analytes in the biological samples are regularly needed to show a patient’s metabolic state especially for those in hospital, and even more so if they are in intensive care. Many of these substrates have been determined by samples of urine and blood being taken away to a medical analytical laboratory for classical analysis, which may not be complete for hours or even days. In emergency cases, an ideal alternative could be on-site biosensors and sensors, a kind of devices, which does not depend on instrumentation and is also rapid, sensitive, specific, cheap, and easy to interpret. The use of on-the-spot biosensors and sensors enable results to be obtained in minutes at most. Therefore our research focus is to develop biosensor and nano-biosensors for rapid and on-site detection of analyte in biological fluids
What is a BIOSENSOR?
A biosensor is a device that incorporates a biological recognition (sensing) element in close proximity or integrated with the signal transducer, to give a reagent less sensing system specific to a target compound (analyte). Biosensor technology encompasses a wide range of disciplines due to the variety of biological recognition elements and signal transducers used. Typical biological recognition elements used in biosensors range from antibodies, enzyme, affinity ligand (e.g., lectin), receptor, peptide, oligonucleotide, organelle, organism, or tissue slice enzymes. The methods of signal transduction used range from electrical, optical, electrochemical, thermometric, piezoelectric and magnetic. The research activity at the Biosensors laboratory includes a wide range of projects.
The main areas of interest are:
1- Development of non invasive glucose sensors
2- Development of nano immunosensor and their application in clinical and pharmacological fields.
3- Development of enzyme biosensors and their application in clinical, toxicological and pharmacological fields.
4- Evaluation and optimization of the different immobilization procedures of proteins such as antibody and enzymes and also mediators, which can be used in the development of enzymatic and non enzymatic screen printed electrodes, based biosensors.
5- Development of the optical and electrochemical biosensors using nanotechnologies methods.
The following technical methods have been used in our research Labs:
1- Antibody engineering (Phage display technology). Production of gene and cDNA library and phage display techniques including panning and selection of library.
2 - Immunochemistry and immunoassay methods including ELISA, RIA, EIA,Immunochromatography, Immunocytochemistry...
3 - Protein purification methods and Chromatography including sieve, ion exchange, affinity,…
4 - Electrophoresis including PAGE, SDS-PAGE, …
5 - Blotting methods including Western blot.
6 - Cell culture techniques.
7 - Hybridoma technology including cell fusion, hybridoma selection and limiting dilution.
8 - Molecular biology techniques including DNA and RNA purification, PCR, RT-PCR, DNA electrophoresis, cloning.
9 -Chemical conjugation of molecules.
10 - Gene expression and over expression methods in bacteria, yeast and eukaryotic cells.
11- Nanoparticle preparation and conjugation of protein to them
The research activity at the Biochemistry Laboratory includes a wide range of projects. The main areas of interest are:
1- Antibody production by phage display technique against some analyte especially camel used as a source of antibody gene
2- Development of type 2 diabetic rat model and assessment of gene expression using real-time PCR and blotting technique
3- Development of chemiluminescence and enzyme immunoassay methods and assessment of their application in clinical diagnostic
4- Measurement of some analyte in biological fluids of diabetic patients using LC/MS and conventional methods
5- Development of immunochromatography test